Over time its been widely accepted as the essential norm of human rights that everyone should respect and defend universal values.
A series of legal instruments and international human rights treaties developed the body of international human rights enacted since 1945 and has conferred legal form on human rights that were constitutional or previously merely declarative. Other instruments have been adopted at the regional level providing for special mechanisms of protection and representing the special human rights concerns of the region. Most States have also enacted other laws which formally protect fundamental human rights. While customary law and international treaties form the backbone of international human rights law other instruments, like guidelines, declarations and principles adopted in the international level contribute to development, implementation and its understanding. Respect for human rights requires the establishment of the rule of law at the national and international levels.
International human rights law lays down obligations which States are bound to honor. States presume duties and obligations under international law to honor, to protect and to fulfil human rights. The duty to respect means that States must refrain from interfering with or curtailing the enjoyment of human rights. The obligation to protect requires States to protect groups and individuals against human rights abuses. The obligation to fulfil means that States must take positive actions to facilitate the enjoyment of fundamental human rights.
Through ratification of international human rights treaties, Authorities undertake to put into place domestic measures and laws harmonious with duties and their treaty obligations. Where national legal proceedings neglect to handle human rights abuses, processes and mechanisms for individual complaints or communications are offered at the international and regional levels to help ensure that international human rights standards are truly honored, applied, and applied in the neighborhood level.